a large, white and grey husky runs while towing a man holding a rope tied to the dog's harness. The man is squatting on skis in a green snow jacket, black pants, ski poles and a black snow cap. They are travelling over a broad, flat, snowy plane with snowcapped mountains and large, bright white clouds in the background.

High Country Winter Dogs

Dr. Margot Daly DVM, CCRP, CVA, of the Frisco Animal Hospital in Frisco, CO, graduated from the University of California – Davis in 2013, and has worked in general practice, emergency practice, and most recently in specialty practice as a full-time rehabilitation and sports medicine veterinarian. Prior to veterinary school, she studied Sociology at UC Berkeley, and had a career as a professional equestrian, which led to an interest in orthopedics, biomechanics, and physical rehabilitation. Following graduation, she received the Certified Canine Rehabilitation Practitioner designation from the University of Tennessee – Knoxville, and the Certified Veterinary Acupuncturist designation from the Chi Institute in Reddick, Florida. She has been with the Frisco Animal Hospital for a year and a half, and when she is not working, she can be found riding a horse or one of her many bicycles, fostering dogs and kittens, reading books, skiing, or traveling somewhere new!

We interviewed Dr. Daly on her advice for canine high country health, winter dog gear, common winter injuries, and winter activities to participate in with your dog.

One of the most common things to be aware of is canine “weekend warrior syndrome.” Dog owners must be sure their dogs are fit enough to participate in physically intense weekend activities. Many dogs only go out in their yard or take a few short walks during the week and then go on big hikes, back country ski trips, or long mountain bike rides on the weekends. Unfortunately, during the high intensity activity the dog’s adrenaline is high and the dog won’t show signs of fatigue, yet the next day with dog will feel awful and be extremely sore. It is comparable to a human doing cross fit only once per week … [imagine] how he or she would feel the next day. To avoid this phenomenon, ensure your dog is fit enough by practicing 30-60 minutes of moderate exercise at least three times per week, which can include 30 minutes of jogging or 60 minutes of active walking. If your dog is doing less than that during the week, it is important to be thoughtful of what you are asking of your dog or what you are giving them the opportunity to do over the weekend. Unfortunately, a fun weekend can become overly taxing on your dog very quickly.

Signs your dog may have done too much over the weekend include not wanting to go up or down stairs, refusing to jump in and out of the car, or not wanting to get up or down from the couch. Your dog may not necessarily be limping since they are more likely to have general full-body fatigue, aches, and soreness. Your dog should still eat and drink normally, and if they aren’t that is reason to call your vet.  

Winter Clothing & Gear

Booties: Dog clothing can be helpful as dogs can get cold just like humans do during outdoor winter activities. Booties can be advantageous during both summer and winter activities. The best policy is to pay attention to your dog’s behavior to determine how necessary booties are. Some dogs make it clear that they are uncomfortable in the snow and slush by holding their paws high in an alternating fashion, sitting down, or refusing to walk. Some dogs are more sensitive than others and some have a higher tolerance for the cold than others.

Dog booties!

The key to booties is acclimating your dog over a week or so before taking the booties out on an adventure. The best way to do this is to put your new booties on your dog in your house and then give them a treat or play with their favorite toy. This will help reinforce the booties and make them a fun experience for your dog! This may take several days before the dog will tolerate the booties and walk around comfortably in them. Essentially, don’t wait until the morning of the big hike to put the booties on your dog for the first time. Another strategy is to start with lightweight booties made of felt with one Velcro strap. These are a lightweight cheap option and are the same booties sled dogs on the Iditarod use. It is best to buy a few sets of these to start as some will inevitably get lost. If you find that your dog requires something more substantial, Dr. Daly recommends RuffWear boots which have a heavy rubber sole. Beware these booties may cause difficulty for a dog with mobility issues where heavy booties may impair the dog’s ability to walk safely. Custom booties are also an option and are recommended for dogs with atypically shaped feet such as greyhounds. A company called TheraPaw will coordinate with your vet to get measurements of your dog’s feet and make custom booties.

If your dog is totally intolerant of booties but could benefit from them, you can try musher wax. It provides a slightly waterproof barrier between your dog’s paws and the roads. It also helps prevent ice balls in dogs with a lot of feathering on their paws or between their toes. Put the wax on right before your take your dog outside and wipe the dog’s paws as soon as you get home. This can help protect dogs who have a lot of road time to protect them from road salt, sand, and ice chemicals.

Jackets: Dr. Daly confirms that there are dogs that may benefit from a jacket especially when participating in winter hiking or backcountry skiing. If you see your dog shivering, hunching their back, or crouching their neck and shoulders, your dog is likely cold and would benefit from a jacket. When choosing a jacket, it is imperative that you choose a jacket that has a full chest and short sleeves vs one that just has a strap across the chest. This ensures that the snow will slide off the chest and not become trapped against the dog’s skin. It is hard for a dog to overheat in the winter, but it is a good idea to provide layering for your dog. Most importantly, do not choose a cotton fabric, but a fabric that will wick and dry quickly such as fleece, soft shell, or a technical fabric. If your dog’s jacket becomes wet or soaked, it is important to take it off, because a wet jacket is no longer providing warmth and will end up making your dog colder.

Goggles: There are a large number of canine patients with eye problems related to the UV light exposure at high altitude. In particular, pannus, an eye condition exacerbated by UV light, is common in dogs living at high altitude due to more UV exposure and increased UV reflection off snow. This immune-mediated condition affects the cornea and causes pink or grey granular tissue to grow from the lateral cornea toward the medial cornea. It is a type of chronic superficial keratitis that certain breeds, specifically German shepherds, are more prone to. For this reason, goggles are recommended for dogs living at high altitude especially if the dog is a high risk breed or if they are already diagnosed with pannus. Weekend warriors are at a much lower risk of developing pannus and goggles are not as strongly recommended. As with dog booties, dogs must be acclimated to goggles and the goggles reinforced with treats or play time. It is not recommended to try out goggles for the first time out on the mountain. Aim for about a week of acclimation around the house and neighborhood so your dog tolerates the equipment well. Dr. Daly has had good luck with RexSpecs which do not require a vet to measure the dog, but she is always happy to help owners measure their dogs.

Sunscreen: Surprisingly, canine sunburn is rare, even at high altitude. If it does occur, the burn is normally anywhere the dog has thin to no hair or pink to white skin. Most commonly it occurs on the nose and belly, especially if the dog prefers to lounge on its back in the sun. Mineral-based sunscreens with an active ingredient of titanium dioxide, such as California Baby Brand Sunscreen, are recommended. After putting sunscreen or any ointment on a dog’s nose it is a good idea to immediately give him or her a treat or chew toy to avoid the dog licking the ointment right off.

Prevention at High Altitude

The one best thing you can do to make sure your pet stays healthy and happy at altitude is to ensure adequate hydration. Dr. Daly does not recommend supplemental electrolytes but encourages owners not to depend on mountain streams, rivers, lakes, snow, or puddles to provide adequate hydration for active high country dogs. The high country has giardia and leptospirosis in natural water sources. Giardia can cause gastrointestinal symptoms, and leptospirosis can cause liver and kidney failure as well as having the potential to be transmitted to humans. Bring as much water for your dog as you do for yourself. If you bring one liter then also bring one liter for your dog. Signs your dog may be dehydrated include lethargy, decreased appetite, odd behavior, head-shaking, crying out, or barking. Dogs normally tend to drink more water while at altitude, and this behavior is only concerning if the dog has blood in the urine, appears to be in pain while urinating, or is having accidents in the house when the dog was previously housetrained.

Lastly, if you go camping with your dog it is imperative that you bring your dog’s daily medications with you and not skip a day simply because you are camping. Chronic medications can’t be skipped for even one dose.

Common High Altitude Diagnoses

Dr. Daly sees many recreational injuries and ACL tears between February and April. During this time of year, the snow has a crusty top layer with soft snow underneath. This leads to dogs punching through the top layer and injuring themselves when the soft snow underneath gives way. This post-holing causes many ligament strains and tears this time of year. In the beginning of winter when the conditions are predominantly slippery and icy, she sees wrist and toe strains and sprains from dogs trying to grip with their feet.

Another common injury are lacerations from back country skis. Many people enjoy taking their canine companion back country skiing but fail to train the dog to stay behind them while cruising down the slope. As a result, many dogs end up with lacerations from running in front of or beside their owner and making contact with their owner’s skis. This can lead to lacerations on the dog’s lower legs including around their tendons. It is also important to teach your dog to stay behind you if they come mountain biking. Many dogs end up with injuries from running in front of or beside their owner’s mountain bikes.

Head pressing

Acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), re-entry HAPE, or high altitude cerebral edema (HACE) are exceedingly rare in dogs. The only situation which may predispose a dog to breathing problems is one coming from sea level with underlying cardiac or pulmonic pathology, such as heart failure or a pulmonary contusion. When coming from sea level with an older dog or one with an underlying comorbidity, it is recommended to stop in Denver for 2-3 nights to let the dog acclimate to the altitude and resultant lower oxygen concentration. Dogs can be prescribed home oxygen concentrators, but these should only be used under the supervision of a veterinarian as they require a specific home kennel or tubing being sewn into the dog’s nare. If your dog falls into a high risk category, Dr. Daly describes “head pressing” as an alarm sign requiring an emergency call to a local vet. This is described as a dog leaning headfirst into a wall, furniture, or other upright object as though it is using the object to hold its head up.  Other concerning signs include severe lethargy, vomiting or diarrhea that does not resolve within 24 hours, or respiratory distress of any kind.

Strengthening & Exercise

Most dogs will benefit from some degree of core and hind limb strengthening, as well as exercises to improve proprioception, or body awareness. The stronger and more coordinated the dog is, the lower risk of injury, even with high impact activities. Additionally, dogs can benefit from a personalized exercise program based on their confirmation, for example a long back or short legs, and pre-existing injuries. Dr. Daly’s background in sports medicine gives her a unique viewpoint allowing her to assess any dog and provide a program to prevent future and, more importantly, repeat injuries. If an owner is hoping that his or her companion can return to hiking 14ers after a ligament tear, then a home exercise program is imperative. Plans generally require about 20 minutes of treatment averaging three times a week and incorporating everyday activities such as stairs and working the dog on alternative surfaces. This ensures dog owners don’t necessarily have to invest in additional equipment.

Are there any winter dog sports clubs you recommend?

Dr. Daly has found that many types of active dogs enjoy the variety of mushing sports that can be done in the winter. These include everything from single or double dog skijoring, bikejoring, and canicross (which is a version of cross country running with your dog), all the way to dogsledding with two or more dogs. She is a part of the Colorado Mountain Mushers which is a great place to start for anyone interested in exploring these activities. The club consists of retired professional veterans to amateur mushers and is a friendly, welcoming, all-inclusive group with abundant resources and advice. The club usually runs about four events per year (COVID pending) and can help you learn some new ways to connect with your canine companion, Huskies not required!

Courtney Zak is currently in her second year of PA school at Red Rocks Community College in Arvada, CO. She is a member of the class of 2021 graduating in November. She attended the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in Chapel Hill, NC for her undergraduate degree in American Studies. She then completed an Occupational Therapy Assistant (OTA) program at Cape Fear Community College in Wilmington, NC. She practiced five years as an OTA working primarily with the geriatric population helping rehab people with various orthopedic injuries, strokes, heart attacks, and general deconditioning. After working up to management, Courtney decided she wanted to gain more medical insight and expand her scope of practice, so she decided to pursue a career as a physician assistant. Courtney now lives in Golden with her husband Jack, three dogs Brooks, Arlo, and Chloe, and her horse, Cannon. She enjoys horseback riding, hiking, paddle boarding, camping, and mountain biking in her free time.

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